Grain, Legume and Vegetable Reference Tables

Quick Reference for Boiling Pulses/Grains

Boiling” is misleading as in most cases you should bring water to the boil then turn down and simmer for the specified time.

Time (mins) Pulses (dry) Grains (dry) Pulses (soaked) Grains (soaked)
120 Chickpeas Rye Groats Soy beans (yellow)  
60 Dried Whole Peas Wheat Groats, Oat Groats (whole) Chickpeas Rye Groats
45   Brown Rice   Wheat Groats, Oat Groats (whole)
35 Split Peas (Green/Yellow), Whole Mung Beans Pearl Barley Dried Whole Peas  
25 Green Lentils, Soy Grits White Quinoa, Millet Split Peas (Green/Yellow) Pearl Barley
20 French Lentils, Split Mung Beans Buckwheat, Course Bulgur    
10-15 Red Split Lentils Steel Cut Oats Whole Mung Beans  

Full Cooking Time and Reference Table

[V]egetables, [P]ulses, [G]rains or [G*] for Pseudo-grains.
the proportional amount of water required by volume i.e. 3 means you will need 3 cups of water for each cup of dry ingredient.

For pulses and grains, “Dry” for cooking time with dry ingredients or “Soaked” for grains which have been soaked for 6-10 hours in plenty of water in the fridge to soften them up. Always drain the soaking-water and rinse the grains before cooking.

For vegetables, this column shows the loss factor from peeling, cutting out cores etc. E.g. if this entry shows “1.5” you need to buy 150g of veg at the market to produce 100g of peeled and prepared veg.

Time (mins) Food Prep Water Type Notes
2 Fine Bulgur Dry 3 G Alternatively just add boiled water and stand for 5 minutes
5 Broccoli
6 Cornmeal Dry   G aka Polenta
6 Corn (kernels/cob)
7 Asparagus
7 Zucchini
7 Eggplant
  V Peel on or off
8 Carrots
10 Red Split Lentils Dry   P Will disintegrate into Dal if cooked longer
30 Mung Beans (whole) Soaked   P  
10 Brussels Sprouts
10 Cauliflower
11 Leeks
  V Remove leaves and peel outer layer of bulb before cutting
12 Parsnip
13 Butternut Pumpkin
15 Black Quinoa Dry   G* Must usually be rinsed first
15 Steel Cut Oats Dry   G Will disintegrate into Porridge if cooked longer
18 Teff Dry   G  
20 Soy Grits Dry   P Can be cooked for much longer - won’t go soggy
20 Buckwheat Dry   G*  
20 Coarse Bulgur Dry 2.25 G  
20 Amaranth Dry 3 G*  
25 White Quinoa Dry 2 G* Must usually be rinsed first
25 Millet Dry   G  
25 Whole Green Lentils Dry   P  
25 Pearl Barley Soaked 3 G  
25 Green Split Peas Soaked 3 P  
30 Mung Beans (whole) Dry   P  
35 Green Split Peas Dry 3 P  
35 Yellow Split Peas Dry 3 P  
35 Pearl Barley Dry   G  
45 Brown Rice Dry 2.25 G  
45 Wheat Groats Soaked 4 G aka Wheatberries or Whole Wheat Grains
50 Whole Oat Groats Dry   G  
60 Whole Peas Dry 3 P aka Blue Boiler Peas
60 Rye Groats Soaked 3 G aka Rye Grains
60 Chickpeas Soaked 3 P  
60 Wheat Groats Dry   G aka Wheatberries or Whole Wheat Grains
120 (2hrs) Rye Groats Dry   G aka Rye Grains
120 (2hrs) Chickpeas Dry   P  
120 (2hrs) Mature Whole Soy Beans Soaked   P aka Yellow Soy Beans; NOT Soy Nuts
240 (4hrs) Mature Whole Soy Beans Dry   P aka Yellow Soy Beans; NOT Soy Nuts

Aromatic Vegetable Flavour Bases

Some classic vegetable (and herb/spice) combinations to start off a sauce, stew, soup etc. Generally sauteed (in the indicated fat) unless otherwise specified.

Ratios of ingredients refer to the approximate volume when chopped - not individual vegetables.

Onion based combinations
Combination Cuisine Basic Ingredients Fat Common Optional Ingr. Notes
Duxelles French Mushrooms, Onion, Thyme/Parsley Butter Fortified Wine, Cream Also used as a stuffing or tart filling
Battuto / Soffrito Italian Onion, Carrot, Celery (2:1:1) Olive Oil Garlic, Shallots, Leeks, Oregano, Basil, Fennel, Sage, Wine, Bay leaf “Battuto” before cooking, “Soffrito” once sauteed; base for many pasta sauces
Mirepoix French Onion, Carrot/Parsnip, Celery (2:1:1) Butter / None Garlic, Parsley, Thyme, Wine/Vinegar, Tomato Paste (for Pincage) May be boiled instead; replace Carrot with Parsnip for White or other pale coloured sauces/soups
Sofrito Spanish Garlic, Onion, Capsicum, Tomato Olive Oil Celery, Carrot, Chilli, Coriander, Cumin, Paprika, Cilantro Many regional variations and names amongst Spanish & Portugese speaking countries
Suppengrün German/Dutch Leek, Carrot, Celeriac Butter / None Parsley, Thyme, Celery, Swede, Onion May be boiled when making soups
Trinity Cajun / Creole Onion, Carrot or Celery, Capsicum (1:1:1) Butter or Oil Garlic, Parsley, Shallots, Paprika Cajun Cooking uses Celery; Creole uses Carrot
Tagine Morroccan/Maghrebi Onion, Cumin, Turmeric, Cinnamon Clarified Butter or Olive Oil Coriander, Ginger. Saffron, Paprika, Chilli “Tagine” can refer to the finished stew or the specific cooking vessel.
Wat Ethiopian & Eritrean Onion None / Clarified Butter Tomato, Cumin, Turmeric, Paprika, Chilli Onions are cooked dry at minimal heat before adding fat and other ingredients
Garlic-and-Ginger combinations
Cuisine Basic Ingredients Fat Common Optional/Alternative Ingr.
Chinese Garlic, Ginger, Scallions Blended Oil Five Spice, Star Anise, Shallots, Chilli, Cilantro, Onions
Indian Garlic, Ginger, Onion, Chilli Ghee or Blended Oil Cumin, Curry, Cardamom, Tumeric, Garam Masala
Middle Eastern Garlic, Ginger, Onions, Tomatoes Ghee or Blended Oil Raisins, Saffron, Tumeric, Cinnamon
Thai Garlic, Galangal, Chilli, Shallots Oil and/or Coconut Milk Lemongrass. Kaffir Lime leaves

Dal Terminology

Dal (also Dahl, Daal etc)
Indian subcontinental term for any dried pulses/legumes, also specific soups prepared with them. Dal is the sanskrit word for “split”.
Whole and unhulled Dal, generally more nutritions but longer to cook.
Can be a synonym for “Sabut” or used to refer to chickpea products (e.g. “gram flour”)
Split but with the skin remaining, quicker to cook.
Split and skinned (Hindi for “washed”), quicker to cook but loses the nutrients from the skin, especially fibre.


Added Aromatic Flavour Bases and Dal Terms
Added Quick Pulse&Grain Reference Table.
Initial version with long form table, no prep loss for veg.